Does Endometriosis Cause Infertility? Covering the Basics
Learn More About the Connections Between Endometriosis and Infertility
Endometriosis (endo) diagnosis can be a frightening thing. Very frightening. While this inflammatory condition can be binary or non-binary, women of child-bearing age are prone to issues with reproduction due to endo. So does endometriosis cause infertility? Keep reading as I break down the basics on this topic. I will also discuss the emotional impact on patients.
What is Endometriosis?
Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition. In this disease, endometrium-like lesions (the tissue that lines the uterine walls) grow outside the uterus. These glands or stroma cause chronic inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis tissue can occur on the surface of other body parts in the pelvic cavity and distant organs such as the diaphragm, lung, and heart.
Because these endometrial-like lesions shed blood and tissue, many problems result. Pain is a common symptom because the blood and tissue have no way to leave the body. This pressure can result in unbearable pain and other symptoms. If you would like to learn more about what endometriosis is, check out our previous article.
What Happens When Endometriosis Does Cause Infertility
It can. 25 to 50% of women with infertility have endometriosis, and 30 to 50% of women with endometriosis have infertility. However, it is very encouraging to know that most women with endometriosis can become pregnant.
This statistic is significant. Many younger women with this disorder feel psychological effects due to the possibility of not being able to have kids. Not all patients carry this same sentiment. Growing numbers of people do not want to have children. However, for those who do, these thoughts and emotions about fertility can be devastating. Then, endometriosis patients who do conceive often worry about the pregnancy and subsequent delivery of the baby.
How Endometriosis and Fertility are Connected
The association between endometriosis and infertility is well-established. However, there may be multifactorial reasons why it occurs, including molecular, mechanical, environmental, and genetic causes.
There are some theories to explain infertility in endometriosis. The following are just a few:
- Inflammation leads to the production of chemicals known as cytokines. These cytokines can inhibit the egg and sperm from meeting each other, which makes fertilization more difficult.
- Endometriosis-related scarring and adhesions can block the fallopian tubes or uterus space. This blockage makes it difficult for the sperm to meet the egg and implant in the endometrium.
- Endometriosis lesions on the ovaries can inhibit ovulation and block the release of an egg.
Other Data on Endometriosis and Reproduction
Studies have also demonstrated that the enzyme, Aromatase may also play a role in endometriosis infertility. There is an abnormally high level of this enzyme in the endometrium and endometriosis lesions in patients with endometriosis. In the uterus, this enzyme may affect both natural endometrial development and its receptivity for the implantation of the fetus.
Progesterone is another hormone that may play a role in implantation failure. Resistance to this enzyme can affect reproduction, as it is necessary for a normal pregnancy. In some studies, progesterone receptors displayed abnormalities and caused dysregulation in the endometrial layer of the uterus in patients with endometriosis. Levels of progesterone should increase with pregnancy, but with endometriosis, this process is delayed and can cause an unopposed estrogen state that cannot sustain fertility.
Endometriosis Infertility Treatment Options
Patients with endometriosis do have a substantial risk of infertility or problems getting pregnant. According to studies, the amount of endometrial-like tissue visible during a laparoscopy correlates with the possibility of future fertility. For this reason, if you have endometriosis and would like to become pregnant, early treatments for endo and fertility are crucial. This is because the stage of endo might progress within time, which increases the risk of infertility.
Can endometriosis cause infertility? Yes, in some patients. However, in most cases, endo does not entirely prevent conception. Traditional treatments for endometriosis approached most cases of endo with total hysterectomies. But these approaches are now outdated. New science-based evidence shows that hysterectomies and oophorectomies are not always needed. That is because these surgeries do not often work to remove all the endometriosis tissue.
A skilled endometriosis specialist goes in the pelvic and abdomen with thin tubes and excises the endometrial-like tissue for best surgery results. This surgery often requires OB-GYN surgeons with advanced training in endometriosis treatment. It typically involves advanced surgical equipment, such as laparoscopy, robotics, and AI technology.
Now let’s review the endometriosis treatment options in the context of pregnancy and fertility.
Medical Treatment Options for Endometriosis
- Ovarian suppression, such as hormonal therapies or oral contraceptives, is not recommended for women who wish to conceive. This highly-debated advice gained support from a large study that found no difference in pregnancy rates and live birth rates in patients with endometriosis who took a hormone vs. placebo.
- An endometriosis diet by nutritionists that work on endo can be helpful. The diet can help increase the patient’s likelihood to conceive with endometriosis and maintain that pregnancy to a full-term birth.
- The Guideline Development Group (GDG) does not recommend the prescription of adjunctive hormonal treatment before surgery in infertile women with endo.
Surgical Treatment Options for Endometriosis
- The goals of surgery are to remove all macroscopic endometriosis implants and return the pelvic cavity to normal anatomy. While these are the goals, not all surgical procedures or endometriosis specialists will stop this inflammatory disorder or restore the pelvic cavity to its normal anatomy.
- It’s crucial to weigh the pros and cons of surgical intervention.
- Endometriosis minimal invasive surgery by an expert is the preferred surgical procedure because:
- It causes minimal damage to the tissue.
- It’s assisted with magnification.
- There is a relatively fast recovery time.
- Mostly only a short hospital stay is involved.
How Women with Endometriosis Suffer Emotional Impact
Women who deal with endometriosis reproductive problems may experience a variety of feelings, such as:
- Feelings of inadequacy
As mentioned above, over 30% of women with fertility problems have endometriosis. If a woman is already distressed about becoming pregnant, the shock of an endometriosis diagnosis may amplify those emotions.
Furthermore, women with endometriosis may feel further pressure to have kids sooner to increase their likelihood of success. But, that’s not always practical. Some do not have a partner or might not even know if they want to have kids. Perhaps they are with someone who does not wish to or is not ready for kids. They might also be with someone they have not been with for very long, so they are unsure if they want children. Many factors can cause stress on women with endo to try to get pregnant right away.
For those ready and trying to get pregnant, fertility issues caused by endometriosis may also create feelings of frustration, hopelessness, and sadness. These feelings are the reasons why it’s crucial to incorporate a mental health expert as part of your holistic endometriosis treatment team.
Psychological Impact of Fertility Treatment for Endo Patients
Furthermore, a whole new slew of emotions comes with those patients who move on to endometriosis fertility treatment. Excitement. Happiness. Disappointment. Sadness. You and your partner can do these things to help prepare for these possible feelings:
- Prepare and be ready for the emotional journey ahead
- Cope with grief and loss associated with unsuccessful prior attempts or miscarriages
- Develop strategies for coping with the news of other people’s births and pregnancies
- Keep the communication lines between you and your partner open and discuss feelings throughout the entire process
Did endometriosis cause infertility issues for you? How has that impacted your life?